Describe the process of neurulation (fig. 23.9
Define the term "somite" and indicate where it is
located, what germ layer it derives from, and what
structures it forms in the adult (figs.
23.8, 23.10, 23.11)
Define cellular induction and offer
examples from development in which it occurs
Describe the cause and effect of the four primary evolutionary mechanisms and be able to offer examples of each mechanism (fig.
26.5, 26.6, 26.7,
26.12, 26.15, table 26.3)
Identify the four primary evolutionary mechanisms from descriptive examples
Differentiate between directional, stabilizing, and disruptive natural selection and be able to offer examples of each type (figs. 26.5, 26.6, 26.7)
Identify the three types of natural selection from descriptive examples
- Differentiate between homology and homoplasy and give examples of each (fig. 28.2,
- Describe how fossils are formed (fig. 28.5)
- Identify at least four limitations of the fossil record
- Identify key timepoints (in mya) on "life's time line": origin of the earth, origin of life, first animal fossils, first fish, first amphibians, first reptiles, first birds, first mammals, origin of Homo sapiens (figs. 28.6,
- Describe the data that supports the hypotheses that Hox gene duplication contributed to diversification in body plans and that Hox gene cluster duplication contributed to diversification in the vertebrate lineage (fig. 28.13).
- Distinguish animals from organisms in other kingdoms
- Identify the FOUR PRIMARY features that make up an animal's "body plan":
tissues, symmetry, body cavity, type of development (figs.
33.4, 33.5, 33.10, 33.12)
- Identify secondary aspects of animal body plans:
nervous systems, cephalization, segmentation, etc.
- Identify the major structural innovations in the phylogenetic tree of animal life and associate these innovations with
the appropriate animal lineages (fig.
- Describe the phylogenetic relationships of the major animal phyla (fig.
- Describe the defining features of the Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa and identify the protostome phyla that belong to each group (fig. 34.2, 34.4,
- Compare and contrast the major protostome phyla in terms of their body plans:
Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Nematoda, Arthropoda (fig.
33.9, 34.6, 34.7, 34.13, 34.15, 34.21, 34.26)
- Identify and distinguish between the four important lineages in the phylum Mollusca:
gastropods, chitons, bivalves, and cephalopods (fig. 34.16, 34.17, 34.18,
- Identify and distinguish between the four important lineages in the phylum Arthropoda:
crustaceans, myriapods, arachnids, and insects (fig. 34.27, 34.29, 34.31,
- Describe the key features of the echinoderm body plan (figs. 35.2, 35.3)
- Describe the key features of the chordate body plan (fig. 35.8)
- Identify and distinguish between the three important lineages in the phylum Chordata (figs. 35.8,
- Describe or diagram chordate phylogeny including the major groups within the subphylum Vertebrata (fig. 35.12, another picture of chordate phylogeny)
- Identify the important themes in the diversification of the vertebrate lineage (fig. 35.11)
- Define the terms "gnathostome", "tetrapod", and "amniote"
and identify the vertebrate classes to which they refer
- Describe the current hypotheses for the evolution of jaws and limbs, including examples of supporting evidence for these hypotheses (figs. 35.14, 35.16)
- Diagram or describe the arrangement of the four extraembryonic membranes in an amniotic egg and indicate the major function of each membrane (fig. 35.17)
- Compare and contrast the function and arrangement extraembryonic membranes in placental mammals and oviparous vertebrates (fig. 35.18)
- Describe three key concepts of animal structure and function and offer examples of each
- Form follows function—with limitations (figs. 42.2,
42.3, panda's thumb (essay and illustration), human pelvis examples)
- Body size affects many aspects of animal physiology (figs. 42.9, 42.10)
- Animals regulate their internal environment within narrow limits (fig.
- Diagram or describe the hierarchical organization of cells, tissues, organs, systems (fig. 42.7, 42.8)
- List the four major tissue types and briefly describe the major function(s) of each.
Relate the structural aspects of each major tissue type to its function.
- Describe the basic structure of epithelial tissue and relate this structure to the primary functions of
the epithelial tissue subtypes (fig. 42.6,
- Describe the basic structure of connective tissue and relate this structure to the primary functions of connective tissue subtypes (table 42.1,
- Describe the processes of diffusion and osmosis and predict the direction of water or solute movement in specific examples involving solutions separated by semi-permeable membranes (fig. 43.1)
- Differentiate among passive transport, primary active transport, and secondary active transport (fig.
- Identify the osmoregulatory challenges marine, freshwater, and terrestrial animals face (figs. 43.2, 43.3,
- Define "osmoregulator" and "osmoconformer"
- Diagram the structure of epithelia involved in osmoregulation; predict the result of exposure of epithelia to solutions of varying composition and osmolarity (figs. 43.6, 43.7,
- Compare and contrast the three main types of nitrogenous waste in terms of source, structure, solubility, and toxicity (table 43.1)
- Describe the basic structure and function of excretory tubules and offer specific examples. (figs. 43.9, 43.11,
- List the four main processes that take place in excretory tubules.
Explain how these processes are related to urine formation and use
this knowledge to determine how nephrons handle nutrients,
electrolytes, and other substances.
- Describe the structure and function of the terrestrial vertebrate nephron (figs. 43.10, 43.11, 43.12, 43.15, 43.16, table 43.2,
figure from lecture.
Here are links to
interactive renal anatomy and a
simplified view of the nephron)
- Describe the role of ADH in the regulation of kidney function (fig. 43.17,
figure from lecture)
- Explain how adaptations in nephron structure relate to environmental challenges (kangaroo rat & seahorse)
- Describe how fish gills operate as both an osmoregulatory and excretory organ (countercurrent flow,
photomicrograph of gill lamellae)
List the three
macronutrients, briefly describe their chemical
structure and describe how the body uses them (fig.
List the four major
feeding mechanisms and offer several examples of each (table
of form and function that support each feeding mechanism
List the stages of food
processing (fig. 44.1)
Describe the relationship
of form to function in the vertebrate alimentary canal (fig.
44.8, 44.9, 44.10, 44.12)
Describe the role of
ingestive and digestive specializations in various
Gut specializations such
as herbivore vs. carnivore, cecum vs.
ruminant stomach, incomplete vs.
complete gut (figs. 44.5,
- Define the partial pressure of a gas and calculate it given appropriate data (fig. 45.2)
- Describe the physical properties that govern the partial pressures of gases in air and in water
- Summarize Fick's law and predict the effect of changing surface area, partial pressures, and distance on diffusion (fig. 45.3)
- Describe the four steps involved in gas exchange between the
environment and an animal's cells (fig 45.1)
- Compare and contrast the structure and function of gills, tracheal systems, and lungs (figs. 45.4, 45.5,
45.6, 45.8, 45.10, 44.12)
- Compare and contrast the structure and function of bird lungs and mammal lungs.
Trace the path of airflow through each system. (fig. 44.12,
bird lung tutorial to be compared to
mammal lung tutorial)
- Describe the structure of the respiratory membrane (fig. 45.10, see this tutorial on the structure--click the blue links)
- Use the oxygen-hemoglobin disassociation curve to predict
hemoglobin saturation under varying oxygen partial pressures.
Predict how the curve will differ under various pH conditions,
under different temperatures, and in animals from different
environments. (figs. 45.13, 45.14, 45.15, 45.16,
- Describe how pH, temperature, and amino acid sequence can
affect the oxygen-hemoglobin disassociation curve.
- List the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in the mammal cardiorespiratory system, describe the rationale for their values,
and predict how the values would change under different
environmental and physiological conditions (e.g. exercise,
changes in breathing rate, changes in altitude, and others) (fig.
- Compare and contrast open & closed circulatory systems know which and identify which organisms that have each type of system (fig. 45.19)
- Describe the structure of the three primary types of blood vessel (fig.
- Compare and contrast the circulatory systems of fish,
amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Trace the path of
blood flow through each system. (fig.
Describe the roles of sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons with respect to the basic reflex pathway (fig. 46.1)
- Diagram the structure of the neuron including the types of ion channels in its plasma membrane and briefly describe the functions of dendrites, cell body, axons, myelin sheath, and nodes of Ranvier (figs.
Define the terms resting membrane potential, action potential, and post-synaptic potential
Describe how an action potential is generated and propagated (figs. 46.5,
46.6, 46.7, 46.8,
action potential figure
Diagram the structure of a synapse and describe the sequence of events in synaptic transmission (fig. 46.12)
- Differentiate between excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials in terms of the their effect on membrane potential and on the likelihood of action potential generation (fig. 46.13, 46.14
- Compare and contrast skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle in terms of structure, function, and location (table
- Describe the structure of striated muscle to the level of the myofilament arrangement (fig. 48.1,
Describe the sliding-filament model of sarcomere contraction (fig. 48.2, 48.4,
animated model of sliding filaments)
- Describe the mechanism by which electrical excitation of muscle cells is coupled to muscle contraction (fig.
Differentiate among autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, neural, neuroendocrine, and pheromone cell-to-cell signals (table
49.1, fig. 49.1)
- Compare and contrast the nervous system and the endocrine system in terms of speed and specificity of the signal transmitted
- Compare and contrast amine, peptide, and steroid hormones in terms of their structure, receptor location, receptor function, and speed of action (figs.
49.3, 49.15, 49.18)
- Describe the general role of negative feedback in the control of hormone secretion and offer one specific example (fig. 49.12, fig. 49.13)
- Give at least three specific
examples of how hormones regulate
development, detailing the hormone
or hormones involved, the target
tissues, and the effects of the
hormone on the target tissues
List the advantages and disadvantages of the sexual an asexual reproduction
Offer at least three specific examples of asexual reproduction (fig.
Define the terms hermaphrodite and sequential hermaphrodite and offer examples of each
Compare and contrast different modes of sexual reproduction
Describe the basic anatomy of sexually reproducing organisms in terms of gonads, ductwork and copulatory organs, and accessory glands and be able to identify specific examples of each of these (figs.
50.11, 50.11, 50.13)